In today’s world, technology is growing faster than ever and we came across many new technologies. One of the booming technologies in the 21st century is Artificial Intelligence. Artificial Intelligence is made up of two words i.e. Artificial means “Man-made” and Intelligence means “thinking.” In short, it means man-made thinking. So, it can be defined as
Artificial Intelligence is the imitation of human Intelligence by machines mainly like the Computer system.
AI exhibits in a machine when it has human intelligence like learning, observing and has decision making power and thinking power. AI works on algorithms and can update itself. With the use of Artificial Intelligence, a user does not need to reprogram the machines.
Artificial Intelligence is not a new technology for researchers. This technology is much older and researchers have worked on this technology tirelessly. Back in 1943, the work which is now recognised as AI was done by Warren McCulloch and Walter where they proposed a model of artificial neurons. Soon after this many the researcher worked hard and proposed different theories among which in the year 1950, Alan Turing who was a Mathematician and pioneered Machine Learning has published “Computing Machinery and Intelligence” which answers his famous question “Can machines think?”. This test can check the Machine’s intelligence with human intelligence and was termed as Turing Theory. The first artificial intelligence program which is named as Logic theorist which proved 38 of 52 Mathematical theorems was created by Allen Newell. In the year 1956, AI coined as an academic field and was termed as Artificial Intelligence by Scientist John McCarthy.
Why Artificial Intelligence
So people, is it really important to have intelligent machines? Can this Artificially intelligent machine change our lives? The answer is YES. AI is the future of the world. Below are some points which would make you believe.
AI can help you build voice recognition machines Siri, Alexa etc.
AI can help you build robots and hence it will lead to a reduction of human physical work. Example: Self-driving cars. This will protect human life from disastrous work.
AI can make efficient robots in Healthcare.
AI can build different types of Apps for health, natural disaster management and will protect human life. Example Coronavirus was effectively controlled with the help of AI. AI majorly useful in the field of finance, social media, data security, travel & transportation, etc. AI opens the door of new technologies, ideas and opportunities.
What goes into Artificial Intelligence
Human Intelligence consists of several features like reasoning, thinking, problem-solving attitude, language understanding etc. To achieve AI in machines all the factors are essential to make machines independent for taking various decisions. We can consider the below points to achieve the above points.
- Mathematics, Statistics
- Neuron Study
- Computer language
- Sociology, Psychology
Artificial intelligence is a leading technology in every sector due to its high performance and its reliability. Guys, you can hardly find any technology which does not use AI. I have listed some of the major advantages of Artificial Intelligence.
Artificial intelligence works with high accuracy and fewer errors. AI designed algorithms in such a way that the function is performed efficiently.
AI has a fast decision making power as per its earlier experience. Deep Blue was a chess-playing machine developed by IBM. They held a competition between a human and the machine. The competition was won by a machine which proves that it has high speed and makes accurate decisions.
Ability to work in any environment
With the help of AI, humans can manufacture robots to perform high-risk jobs like coal mining, defusing a bomb, exploring space or ocean.
Technologies like Alexa, Siri etc assist people. It can also help physically challenged people to complete the task. You can rely on your small works like setting reminders, security, electricity management on AI.
As every coin has two sides, so does AI. As giving the unique power of thinking to machines has some big disadvantages. Below mentioned are a few points to be noted:
The hardware and software required for building AI machines are costlier and hence is hard to maintain.
Difficulty in simulating emotions
Being an intelligent machine, it cannot create emotions like love, anger, etc with the user. The machine does not get emotionally attached to humans. So, it is necessary to properly maintain the machine.
Can lead to dependency on machines
Human beings will be dependent on machines for day to day activities. People can lose their mental capabilities if they are dependent.
Artificial Machines are not intelligent enough to create new ideas as humans. They can only do the particular task assigned to them.
Types of AI
There are mainly two types of artificial intelligence based on capabilities and functionality.
Based on capabilities AI is mainly of three types as mentioned below:
Narrow AI is designed to perform dedicated tasks with intelligence and cannot perform tasks which are beyond its field. Hence, they are also termed as Weak AI.
Apple Siri, purchasing suggestions on e-commerce websites, self-driving cars etc are the best examples of weak AI.
General AI is the type of system where it could perform tasks similar to humans. It can take proper decisions on its own. General AI should have the same intelligence as human-being. A system with general AI is still under research and will take time to develop such a system.
Strong AI is the type of system where artificial intelligence surpasses human intelligence. This is a hypothetical system which should have characteristics like imagination, ability to think, communication by its own, etc.
Based on functionality, AI is of four types as mentioned below:
Reactive machines are the basic AI. They do not store data or past experiences and are task-oriented. They perform functions based on the task given. IBM Deep Blue system, Google’s AlphaGo are some examples of reactive machines.
Limited memory machine can store some data for a short period. This data helps them to make future decisions. Self-driving cars are an example of limited memory as it stores information regarding speed, distance of other cars, etc.
Theory of Mind
This is a psychological term. It should understand emotions, beliefs and should be able to interact with people. I should act like a human. Researchers and scientists are working hard on this theory to develop such a system.
This is a hypothetical system where Self-awareness AI will be super intelligent and will have its thoughts, self-awareness and consciousness.
AI as a Service ( ALaaS)
The hardware, software and staffing cost of AI is higher and hence vendors are including AI components in their standard offering. They provide AI as a service(ALaaS). It allows companies and users to perform different tasks and experiment with it. Companies offering popular AI cloud services are:
- Amazon AI
- Google AI
- IBM Watson assistance
- Microsoft Cognitive Service
Applications of AI
Artificial intelligence plays an important role in our daily life. It has become essential as it can solve complex problems fast and efficiently. AI is making our life comfortable and let’s check out how?
In recent years, AI is more advantageous in the healthcare sector. AI is used to diagnose humans better and faster than humans. With the help of AI, doctors can detect any issues in the body like blood pressure. This helps to save time and doctors can diagnose before getting any critical condition. Other AI applications include a chatbox through which patients can talk about health machines and can give advice as per the symptoms told by the patients.
AI can upgrade teaching which will give the tutor more time and opportunity to explore various teaching. In the future, AI can work as a virtual teacher and help students with personalizing the learning experience. AI chatbot can help students as well as teachers to get better learning assistance.
In today’s world, Robotic Process Automation (RPA) is used in industries for highly repetitive tasks. This helps us to save time and resources. To give better customer service and support immediately, Machine Learning Algorithms are being integrated into analytics and CRM platforms. AI chatbot is used to better and faster customer service.